Extracting oil from oilseeds and meal preparation are performed in the following ways:
1) production method:
Surplus oil extraction plants that are solid residues oilseeds, called Meal (oil_cake or oil_seed cake) called often to feed livestock Shvnd.rvsh brought the industrial extraction of oil seeds (oil seed) in four types are:
A - non-continuous pressure method:
It involves a two-step sequential compression is performed by hydraulic device Chnanknh of 80-60 ° C does not exceed the duration of the compression 60-40 minutes. In this way the "cold" is known, not baked beans and oil will not be fully achieved so meal containing residual oil will be 12.6 percent (2).
B - constant pressure method or Aksplr (expellere):
While under pressure, in which the seeds are placed in a special machine to 120-90 ° C are heated and cooked well. Oil seeds are extracted more appropriate amount and that the resulting meal is well toasted, about 4 percent of oil containing a fatty meal so-called. Term pressure on aggregate in this way to "hot method" is known, does not exceed 3 minutes (2).
C - continuous extraction method or Akstrasyvn (extraction):
This method of oil extraction by organic solvents, such as "carbon-sulfur", "benzene" and "ether" occurs over medium heat but subsequently the solvent composition and the resulting oil to heat over 100 ° C for one hour with their faces (2).
D - non-continuous extraction method:
The temperature less than 75 ° C is used. Therefore, the seeds are not roasted, and the resulting white cake will be well worth the protein in it is well maintained. In general, the method of extraction meal that can be prepared, less than 0.5% oil and "non-greasy meal" called. The meal that pressure method and are partially the result, at the end of the process, again by chemical solvents for oil, they are empty (2).
Combine sunflower meal:
Depending on the method of choice in the process of extracting oil from oilseeds, two meals with different nutritional values obtained are:
A - unpeeled sunflower seeds meal:
The seeds are crushed and processed with membrane them of their oil. This type of meal is very high in fiber but low in nutritional value, thus allowing the creation of digestive disorders while they are feeding their animals there are so used for feeding livestock, such Monogastric pigs, horses and birds can be not recommend. These meals are the best material with rations to absorb molasses, can be participants in the diet of ruminants (ruminants) such as cattle, buffalo, camels, sheep and goats programmed (2).
B - peeled sunflower seeds meal:
The seeds can be obtained from the brains without skin. This type of meal yellowish white in color with a sweet taste and are air-conditioned. Meal variety of ways due to an oil pressure with high iodine index (approximately 128) are relatively rapidly oxidized and pungent (2).
Table 3) compounds in a variety of sunflower meal (2) Meal
Sunflower Meal, unpeeled
Sunflower meal peeled
Humidity 10-12 7 / 5-13 / 8
Protein 20-30 30-53
Fat 0 / 8-8 7-15
Ash 4-6 4 / 3-7 / 7
Crude fiber 4-6 4 / 3-7 / 7
0.9 P 0.04
Calcium 0/2 0/43
Non extract Tian 22-30 20-30
Table 4) Compare the various oil seed meal ingredients obtained from Aksplr (6), safflower, sunflower, soybean meal, cotton linen blend
Humidity (%) 7/8 8/3 10/3 10/1 8/3
Digestible energy (kcal / kg) 1590 3120 3400 3400 3/30
Fiber (%) 31 13 2.8 9 15.7
Fat (%) 6 7/6 0/8 5/2 6/6
Crude protein (%) 19/7 36/8 48/9 34 39/7
Calcium (%) 0/23 0/43 0/26 0/44 0/19
P (%) 0/55 0/64 0/41 0/7 1
The amount of protein and amino acid composition of the type of seed meals, such as old varieties and low-fat, non-oily varieties and cultivars used are dependent. "Tkachvk" (29) reported that the amount of lysine meal "Prvdvyk" is revealed. "Rad" and colleagues (22) reported that the increase in temperature during the process of oil extraction have a negative impact on the lysine meal. Sunflower Meal index of amino acids than soybean meal and egg which are, respectively, 79 and 110, an index of 68. Also, according to FAO standards in terms of amino acids rare 63 index compared with 67 index for soybean meal (29).
Seeds and a small amount of protein and globulin is a lot. Sunflower meal containing 60-55 percent globulin, albumin 23-17 percent, 17-11 percent Glvtlyn, prolamin 4.1 percent and about 11 percent of non-protein nitrogen and is insoluble deposits (25).
Peeled sunflower meal by 8.3%, including 0.6% glucose sugar, 2.3% sucrose, trehalose is 3.2% raffinose and 0.8%. Most of the carbohydrate hydrolysis and digestion are well soluble sunflower meal (8).
Sunflower meal as a source of calcium and phosphorus as any other oilseed meal and so far none of mineral deficiency or toxicity has been reported in (16).
Table 5) Compare the percentage of minerals in oilseed meal (16) of Ca PK Na Cl S Mg Fe
Sunflower 0.26 1.22 1.08 0.19 ----- ----- ----- -----
Cottonseed ----- 1/19 1/47 0/05 0/04 0/21 0/58 0/015
Linen 0/4 0/83 1/38 0/14 0/04 0/033 0.6 -----
Peanut 0/16 0/54 1/15 0/42 0/03 0/18 0/24 -----
Sevilla 0/29 0/64 1/92 0/34 0/43 0/27 ----- 0.013
Sunflower meal is an excellent source of B vitamins, such as "nicotinic acid", thiamine (B1), "pantothenic acid", riboflavin (B2) and biotin as the "nicotinic acid" is about 170% more than the peanut meal and the "Thiamine" about 360 percent more than the meal, flaxseed (linseed) is. Meal cultivars of sunflower oil has much more "nicotinic acid" but less "thiamine" (9).
Enzymes in sunflower seeds during exposure to heat from the oil extraction process are frequently changing and disabled (24). Phenolic substance "chlorogenic acid" which is an obstacle to the application of sunflower meal for human consumption as productive yellowish after oxidation in the presence of alkaline substances act (5).
Grain leather combinations:
Sunflower seeds contain lipid skin (17.5 percent), hydrocarbons (mainly cellulose and lignin), sterols, fatty acids, alcohols, approximately 4% protein, 1.2% ash and 8.2% of humidity. Sunflower seeds are the raw fibers in the skin in two ways:
A - insoluble polysaccharides (11.3 percent hemicellulose and pectin 6.2%)
B - lignin
Basically, the structure and physiology of the digestive tract, the stomach of monogastric animals with many different animals, so that there are no cellulase enzymes in monogastric animals and they are not able to digest cellulose and crude fiber, so are the ingredients in poultry feed are not of much value ( 3).
In research (Tsvetanov-1988) found that 25% replacement of soybean meal with sunflower meal in broiler diets cause weight gain and decreased 3% to 4% of food consumption per unit of weight gain. During the test (zatari-1990) the positive effect of combination of sunflower meal with vegetable fats or livestock to increase feed conversion ratio was emphasized. In some studies (Rad-1976) that can be up to 50 percent of the soybeans in poultry diets with sunflower meal without suffering any adverse effects as a replacement alternative, but more of it should be a rich source of energy (fat) with " Lysine "added to the diet. Some reports (mandlekar-1992) also suggests improving egg production by adding sunflower meal supplemented with "methionine", and replacement of soybean meal with sunflower and peanut meal as a supplement "Lyzyn- L) was associated increase increase feed chicks diets and weight race "Plymouth ROC" (15). The digestibility of amino acids in the same sunflower meal peanut meal, but most of the soybean is estimated. has been observed that the growth of broiler chickens if fed with a mixture of sunflower and soybean meal more from them if they are fed soybean meal (12). Other reports (Rannakopolos-1993) to make more effective use of sunflower meal on weight gain and feed conversion than cottonseed meal Broiler story. Some research also indicates the negative effects of replacing soybean meal with sunflower meal in broiler diets are low due to energy metabolism, having large particles and fibers are abundant in sunflower meal (28,20,21 , 27).
Sunflower meal used in the research project of four major companies supplying oil country following purchase, and then the required amount of mixing said samples were selected randomly:
A - Attend Behpak (GR)
B - Aksdanh Company (Tehran)
C - Cultivation and Industry North (Surrey)
D - Margarine Company (Branch)
Poultry fat from the slaughterhouse region and was refrigerated until used. All materials included maize, soya and sunflower meal consumed 4 AOAC1990 according to the dry matter, crude protein, crude fiber, crude fat and ash were analyzed. The experimental diets using computer programs (0UFFDA (done again user friendly_feed formulation on the basis of nutritional tables (NRC-1994) (National Research Council) as all the diets for broilers were found of type "Ayzvnytrvzhn" (containing nitrogen the same), but the energy was different. rations for two stages of the growing period (grower) and during the final days of 28-0 (finisher) is calculated from 56-29 days and were prepared. Diets have 4 levels of sunflower meal and 2 levels of poultry fat that diet to replace soybean meal in broiler were used.
Table 6) comparing the amount of dry matter, crude protein and crude fiber in the diet and fed standard diets of growing food consumption in Zmayshjyrh finisher diet
Dry matter% crude protein, crude fiber%%% dry matter, crude protein, crude fiber%%
1 standard diet (5% fat meal 5%) 91/17 20/87 4/8 90/56 11/85 4/25
Used ration 89/88 20/88 3/88 89/68 18/08 4/25
The statistical model of the project:
In this study, a completely randomized design (Completely Randomized Design) factorial design (Factorial experiments) was used 4 different levels of sunflower meal as fat as the main factors were considered major factors and 2 levels. Statistical analysis using software (SAS (statistical analysis system and method MSTAT-C and comparison of Duncan (Duncan`s multiple range test) was performed.
The study was performed:
480 broiler chickens Arian (Arian strain) that their economic characteristics were recorded weekly. All the chicks during the first week of a diet completely identical, and at the end of the first week to help separate scales were weighing an average weight of 136/5 are warm, then by the same weight in groups of 20 for each unit divided respectively. Each experimental unit at the beginning of the second week of the growth of food rations and the Lbtday fifth week with the final ration in each treatment were managed. Room temperature in the range of 35-32 ° C was set in the early growth and to reduce the temperature of 18-15 ° C and 3.2 ° C per week decreased at the end of the growing period. Feed and water requirements are met throughout the growing season by drinking appropriate. Do not use the free method (full feed) the remaining amount at the end of each week the chicks were collected from the feeder and the weighing of their initial weight was subtracted to feed the exact amount based on the "number of chickens" (hen day) is calculated. All chickens were weighed each experimental unit at the end of each week and dead chickens were also considered. While tests such as food conversion ratio, mortality, body weight, carcass yield, abdominal fat, liver weight and percent crop -Qlb and chest and thighs were evaluated.
Discussion and conclusion :
The meal was increased with increased food intake in the final period as the 15% peak reached meal. Most of the increase in body weight in the final period, respectively 10% and 15% of sunflower meal was not significant, but the difference between them. Increased rates of fat has more weight than all levels of sunflower meal were fat. FCR in both fat and fat-free treatment as fat were significantly more weight and feed intake were less. The average weight gain in diet containing 10% sunflower meal as well as fat-free diet even more sunflower oil were added.
the absorption of nutrients in poultry as researchers (Zatari-1990) on plant-animal fat in the diet containing 10% 6% sunflower meal had been confirmed. Replacing soybean meal with sunflower meal because there was no significant difference in the mortality rate of chickens though levels of fat than non-fat levels on mortality added a small amount. By replacing soybean meal with sunflower meal no significant difference in the mean percentage of breast, thigh and carcass was found, however, increased levels of sunflower meal increased the percentage of internal organs, including heart, liver and gizzard was. Treatment significantly increased the levels of fat in the abdominal fat tissue because practically fatty acids chickens were enough available and the possibility of storing them entirely.
1) Use of sunflower meal in diets containing 15 percent fat or fat-free diets as much as 5 percent is possible.
2) Increased levels of sunflower meal replacing soybean meal in diets without fat on broiler production traits-economic effect is not good, so the absence of added fat can only be 5% of sunflower meal in broiler diets attempted.
3) The level of fat sunflower meal diets for broilers was evaluated at 10%, without any significant difference between levels is 15% of sunflower meal.